|Foreign Exchange Revaluation Journals > Foreign Exchange Revaluation Journals|
The system handles the posting of multi-currency transactions by allowing bank accounts, customer and supplier accounts to be set up in a currency that is different to the base currency of the company.
All transactions posted to these accounts are translated into the base currency amount based on the rates held in the system’s currency table or entered against each specific transaction.
When the transactions are finally settled (i.e.: a customer pays their account, a supplier account is paid or a bank account is converted to base currency) the system handles the calculation and automatic posting of any realised gains/losses.
Therefore, a gain is generated if a Foreign Exchange (FX) payment actually cost less in base currency than originally posted or if a FX amount received translated into more in the base currency than originally posted - losses are generated if the opposite applies. This multi-currency processing is handled within the system as transactions are posted.
At a financial period end, if the business wishes to produce an accurate Balance Sheet at a specific period end, it needs to consider the real value at the Balance Sheet date of any outstanding FX balances it holds, bearing in mind any changes in the exchange rates that may have arisen since the FX transactions were originally posted.
To facilitate this, the system provides a 3 step revaluation wizard to enable you to revalue your company’s foreign bank, customer or supplier accounts at any point in time and to post the adjusting journals to the General Ledger automatically.
These adjustments are called Unrealised Gains/(Losses) because the gains or losses may not be the ones actually “realised” when the accounts are actually settled as the rates have changed. These Unrealised Gains/(Losses) are posted as reversing journals so as to only effect the month end reporting.
Note that this Revaluation function is available in the multi-currency version only of the system.
A Balance Sheet is designed to reflect the position of the company at a particular point in time.
FX balances that were previously posted and are still outstanding are likely to be worth a different amount if the FX exchange rates have fluctuated since the transactions were posted.
For example, a supplier account balance of €5,000 Euro converts to £3,023.98 GBP at a monthly average exchange rate of 1.653450 Euro to the £. However if at month end the exchange rate has risen to 1.752908, the €5,000 is now only worth £2,852.40. This represents a reduction in the amount owing of £171.58, which is an unrealised gain to your company, i.e. if the company paid the supplier at that point in time, it would have to pay £171.98 less than when the original invoices were posted.
While a fluctuation in exchange rates may not be permanent, it usually represents a trend in the rate. It is good accounting practice to recognise gains/losses as they arise rather than waiting until the transaction is paid and recognise the total “realised” gain/loss in that period.
In addition the real value of the balance sheet values of the debtors, creditors or bank accounts in base currency should be recognised at each month end.
Therefore, it is prudent to revalue any outstanding FX accounts on a period by period basis. The system facilitates this approach, with auto reversing journals.
The Foreign Exchange Revaluation Journals Wizard does the following:
The Revaluation Journal can be accessed from the ‘General’ top-level menu option as shown below:
The first step in using the wizard simply involves choosing the types of accounts you wish to revalue and selecting the period end date for the journals.
You can decide it is appropriate to revalue your Bank & Loan accounts, foreign customer and foreign supplier accounts both individually or altogether. Simply use the tick boxes to select which account types you wish to revalue.
You must then indicate which period you wish to create the journals in, i.e. which period must be re-valued. Use the drop down box to select the period. This determines the rates to be applied and the period the revaluation journals will be calculated for and posted to.
NB: Note that this screen displays the General Ledger account code of the Unrealised Gains/Losses Account. In the case below this is account ‘4130’ but may be different depending on your own chart of accounts.
By default the system includes a required ‘account type’ for Unrealised Gains/Losses to be posted to. You can associate this account type with whatever GL account you wish using the Required Accounts screen. Click on the link provided (as shown above) to access this screen:
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Use the ‘Account No’ drop down to associate the Unrealised Gains/Losses account type with the correct GL account. This will determine the Profit & Loss account where the unrealised gain/loss journal resulting from the revaluation is posted.
The next step involves setting period end exchange rates for each foreign currency. For example, although you may now be in September and using September exchange rates for day to day transactions, you may wish to revalue your foreign currency accounts at the end of August rate for all of your August transactions. The storing of historical exchange rates by financial period facilitates this.
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Click ‘Edit’ beside each currency and record the exchange rate which pertains at the period end.
Depending on the type of accounts chosen (bank account, suppliers or customers), this screen will list the accounts to revalue up to the revaluation date as shown at the top.
The following fields are shown in the grid:
Note that you have the option of exporting the contents of the grid to Excel by clicking on the ‘Export’ button. This is useful if you wish to create a record of the accounts that were revalued or if you wish to perform any further checks prior to creating the journals.
The Creditors and Debtors ageing reports are updated to reflect the currency revaluation adjustments when run in base currency to ensure that the totals still tally up with the relevant control accounts (see below).
After you have checked the accounts and the revaluation amounts calculated, click ‘Generate Revaluation Journals’ to generate the postings to the GL.
After the journals are created you will receive a confirmation message. A link will be provided at the bottom of the screen which will enable you to access the Transactions Browser where the created journals can be viewed.
If the adjustment is positive (i.e. increase in debtor or reduction in creditor amount):
A Debit General Journal (GD) for the difference is posted to the relevant control account.
A Credit General Journal (GC) is posted to the defined ‘Unrealised Gains/Losses’ account.
If the adjustment is negative (i.e. reduction in bank or debtor or increase in creditor balance):
Revaluation General Ledger (GD/GC) Journals are posted with the following details:
Unrealised gains/losses are posted as reversing journals and therefore are reversed automatically at the start of the next period. This recognises the expected gain/loss at that point of time, some of which will be realized in the following period and allows the recalculation of the Unrealised Gain/(Loss) each period based on the balances then outstanding and the exchange rates then applying.
Note that revaluation journals cannot be edited via the transaction editing screen once they have been created. If you wish to cancel them you have the option of reversing them or if you made a mistake and revalued at the wrong rate, you can re-generate a new journal. Any prior journals for the period will automatically be reversed for you.
The Aged Creditors and Debtors (Summary & Detailed) layouts have an extra section at the bottom of the reports to facilitate reconciliation with the aged creditors or debtors control accounts as reported in the Trial Balance.
Therefore, when you run an ageing report in base currency for a period in which there is a balance in the Unrealised Gains/Losses account, the report will include a section displaying the unrealised gain/loss for the period and will add that to the overall creditors or debtors Balance (section outlined in red below).
This will enable you to arrive at the total for reconciliation with the Debtors or Creditors control account as shown in the Trial Balance.
In the example below, the total Aged Debtor balance at the end of July is €95,601 as per Aged Debtors report. In this period, an unrealised gain of €7,499.25 was recorded after the customer accounts were revalued. This represents a Debtors control total of €103,099.94 for reconciliation with the Debtors control total in the Trial Balance for July (see following screenshot).